DARE Research Project

DARE Research Project

DARE : Soil–Foundation–Structure Systems Beyond Conventional Seismic “Failure” Thresholds

Conventional seismic design for soil–foundation–structure interaction is still based on the “prudent” conservative approach inherited from static geotechnical and structural engineering:  the use of “overstrength” factors plus (explicit and implicit) factors of safety.
Engineers must avoid a number of thresholds that lead to the creation of failure mechanisms in the supporting soil or at the footing–soil interface. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that soil–foundation inelastic and nonlinear response under seismic excitation is unavoidable, and at times even desirable. Our involvement to the EU-funded DARE Project dates back to 2008 when the idea of rocking footings was initially conceived and continued throughout the entire project duration. The founding members of Grid Engineers have contributed to the Project a total of 18 Scientific papers.

Funded by European Commission

Conventional seismic design of bridge foundation

Demonstation of the Rocking foundation concept: the bridge survives a severely strong earthquake with minor pier damage.


Gelagoti F., Kourkoulis R., Anastasopoulos I., Gazetas G. (2012), “Rocking Isolation of Frame Structures founded on Separate Footings”, Earth. Eng. and  Str, Dyns, Vol. 41 (7), pp. 1177–1197.

Gelagoti F., Kourkoulis R., Anastasopoulos I.,Gazetas G. (2012), “Rocking Isolated Frame Structures:Margins of Safety against Toppling Collapse and Simplified Design Approach”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 32(1), pp. 87–102.

Kourkoulis R., Gelagoti F., Anastasopoulos I. (2012),  “Rocking Isolation of Frames on Isolated Footings : Design Insights and Limitations”, Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 16 (3), pp. 374-400.

Anastasopoulos I., Kourkoulis R., Gelagoti F., Papadopoulos E. (2012).“Rocking Response of SDOF Systems on Shallow Improved Sand: an Experimental Study”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 40, pp. 15-33.

Anastasopoulos I., Gelagoti F., Kourkoulis R., Gazetas G.(2011), “Simplified Constitutive model for Simulation of Cyclic Response of Shallow Foundations:Validation against Laboratory Tests”, J.of Geotech. and Geoenv. Eng., ASCE, Vol. 137(12), pp.1154-1168.

Loli M., Knappett J.A., Anastasopoulos I., and Brown M.J.(2015), “Use of Ricker motions as an alternative to pushover testing”, International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics, ICE, Vol. 15(1), pp. 44-55.

Loli M., Knappett J.A., Brown M.J., Anastasopoulos I., and Gazetas G. (2014),“Centrifuge Modeling of Rocking–isolated Inelastic RC Bridge Piers”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 43 (15), pp. 2341-2359.

Anastasopoulos I., Loli M., Georgarakos T., and Drosos V. (2013), “Shaking Table Testing of Rocking−isolated Bridge Pier on Sand”, Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 17(1), pp.1-32.

Drosos V., Georgarakos T., Loli M., Anastasopoulos I., Zarzouras O., and Gazetas G. (2012),“Soil–Foundation–Structure Interaction with Mobilization of Bearing Capacity:An Experimental Study on Sand”, Journalof Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 138(11), pp.1369-1386.